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Vassilakis, P.N., Meenderink, S.W.F., and Narins, P.M. (2004).  Distortion product otoacoustic emissions provide clues to hearing mechanisms in the frog ear.  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 116(6): 3713-3726.

Abstract   (click here for the full paper in .pdf format)

2f1-f2 and 2f2-f1 distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were recorded from both ears of male and female Rana pipiens pipiens and Rana catesbeiana. The input-output (I/O) curves obtained from the amphibian papilla (AP) of both frog species are analogous to I/O curves recorded from mammals suggesting that, similarly to the mammalian cochlea, there may be an amplification process present in the frog AP. DPOAE level dependence on L1-L2 is different from that in mammals and consistent with intermodulation distortion expectations. Therefore, if a mechanical structure in the frog inner ear is functioning analogously to the mammalian basilar membrane, it must be more broadly tuned. DPOAE audiograms were obtained for primary frequencies spanning the animalsí hearing range and selected stimulus levels. The results confirm that DPOAEs are produced in both papillae, with R. catesbeiana producing stronger emissions than R. p. pipiens. Consistent with previously reported sexual dimorphism in the mammalian and anuran auditory systems, females of both species produce stronger emissions than males. Moreover, it appears that 2f1-f2 in the frog is generated primarily at the DPOAE frequency place, while 2f2-f1 is generated primarily at a frequency place around the primaries. Regardless of generation place, both emissions within the AP may be subject to the same filtering mechanism, possibly the tectorial membrane.